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Double or Collective Subject.


Two or more singular subjects take a verb in the Plural:

NOTE: So rarely (by synesis, §280. a) when to a singular subject is attached an ablative with cum: as, - dum cum aliquot principibus capiuntur (Liv. XVI. 60), the general and several leading men are taken.

a. When subjects are of different persons, the verb is usually in the first person rather than the second, and in the second rather than the third: -

NOTE: In case of different genders a participle in a verb-form follows the rule for predicate adjectives (see §287. 2 4).

b. If the subjects are connected by disjunctives (§223. a), or if they are considered as a single whole, the verb is usually singular: -

NOTE: So almost always when the subjects are abstract nouns.

c. When a verb belongs to two or more subjects separately, it often agrees with one and is understood with the others: -

d. A collective noun commonly takes a verb in the singular; but, the plural is often found with collective nouns when individuals are thought of (§280. a): -

NOTE 1: The point of view may change in the course of a sentence: as, - equitatum omnem ... quem habebat praemittit, qui videant (B. G. i. 15), he sent ahead all the cavalry he had, to see (who should see).

NOTE 2: The singular of a noun regularly denoting an individual is sometimes used collectively to denote a group: as, Poenus, the Carthaginians; miles, the soldiery; eques, the cavalry.

e. Quisque, each, and unus quisque, every single one, have very often a plural verb, but may be considered as in partitive apposition with a plural subject implied (cf. §282. a): -

NOTE: So also uterque, each (of two), and the reciprocal phrases alius ... alium, alter ... alterum315. a).