Heavy Construction

The Allen and Greenough is still under construction; so some links may not work quite the way you would expect.


The main uses of ídem and ipse are as follows: -

a. When a quality or act is ascribed with emphasis to a person or thing already named, is or ídem (often with the concessive quidem) is used to indicate that person or thing: -

NOTE: So rarely with ille: as, - nunc dextra ingeminans ictus, nunc ille sinistra (Aen. v. 457), now dealing redoubled blows with his right hand, now (he) with his left. [In imitation of the Homeric o ge: cf. Aen. v. 334; ix. 796.]

b. Ídem, the same, is often used where the English requires an adverb or adverbial phrase (also, too, yet, at the same time): -

NOTE: This is really the same use as in a above, but in this case the pronoun cannot be represented by a pronoun iu English.

c. The intensive ipse, self, is used with any of the other pronouns, with a noun, or with a temporal adverb for the sake of emphasis: -

NOTE 1: The emphasis of ipse is often expressed in English by just, very, mere, etc.

NOTE 2: In English, the pronouns himself etc. are used both intensively (as, he will come himself) and reflexively (as, he will kill himself): in Latin the former would be translated by ipse, the latter by se or sese.

d. Ipse is often used alone, substantively, as follows: -

1. As an emphatic pronoun of the third person: -

2. To emphasize an omitted subject of the first or second person: -

3. To distinguish the principal personage from subordinate persons: -

e. Ipse is often (is rarely) used instead of a reflexive (see § 300. b).

f. Ipse usually agrees with the subject, even when the real emphasis in English is on a refiexive in the predicate: -