The Allen and Greenough is still under construction;
so some links may not work quite the way you would expect.
298. The main uses of ídem and ipse are as follows: -
a. When a quality or act is ascribed with
emphasis to a person or thing already named, is or ídem (often with the concessive quidem) is used to indicate that person or
- per únum servum et eum ex
gladiatórió lúdó (Att. i. 16. 5), by
means of a single slave, and that too one from the gladiatorial
- vincula, et ea sempiterna
(Cat. iv. 7), imprisonment, and that perpetual.
- Ti. Gracchus régnum occupáre
cónátus est, vel régnávit is quidem
paucós mensís (Lael. 41), Tiberius Gracchus tried
to usurp royal power, or rather he actually reigned a few months.
NOTE: So rarely with ille:
as, - nunc dextra ingeminans ictus, nunc ille
sinistra (Aen. v. 457), now dealing redoubled blows with his
right hand, now (he) with his left. [In imitation of the
Homeric o ge: cf. Aen. v. 334; ix. 796.]
b. Ídem, the same, is often used
where the English requires an adverb or adverbial phrase (also, too, yet, at the same time): -
- órátió splendida et
grandis et eadem in prímís facéta
(Brut. 273), an oration, brilliant, able, and very witty too.
- cum [haec] dícat, negat
ídem esse in Deó grátiam
(N. D. i. 121), when he says this, he denies also that there is mercy
with God (he, the same man).
NOTE: This is really the same use as in a above, but in
this case the pronoun cannot be represented by a pronoun iu English.
c. The intensive ipse, self, is used with any of the
other pronouns, with a noun, or with a temporal adverb for the sake of
- turpe mihi ipsí
vidébátur (Phil. i. 9), even to me (to me myself) it seemed disgraceful.
- id ipsum, that very
thing; quod ipsum, which of
- in eum ipsum locum, to
that very place.
- tum ipsum (Off. ii. 60),
at that very time.
NOTE 1: The emphasis of ipse is often expressed in English by just,
very, mere, etc.
NOTE 2: In English, the pronouns himself etc. are used
both intensively (as, he will come himself) and reflexively (as, he will kill himself): in Latin the former would be translated by
ipse, the latter by se or sese.
d. Ipse is often used alone, substantively, as
1. As an emphatic pronoun of the third person: -
- idque reí públicae
praeclárum, ipsís glóriósum
(Phil. ii. 27), and this was splendid for the state, glorious for
- omnés boní quantum in
ipsís fuit (id. ii. 29), all good men so far as
was in their power (in themselves).
- dí capití
ipsíus generíque reservent (Aen. viii. 484),
may the gods hold in reserve [such a fate] to fall on his own and his
2. To emphasize an omitted subject of the first or second person: -
- vobíscum ipsí
recordáminí (Phil. ii. 1), remember in your own
minds (yourselves with yourselves).
3. To distinguish the principal personage from subordinate persons: -
- ipse díxit (cf. autos efa), he (the Master) said
- Nómentánus erat super
ipsum (Hor. S. ii. 8. 23), Nomentanus was above [the
host] himself [at table].
e. Ipse is often (is rarely) used instead of a reflexive (see § 300. b).
f. Ipse usually agrees with the subject, even when
the real emphasis in English is on a refiexive in the predicate: -
- mé ipse cónsólor (Lael. 10), I console
myself. [Not mé ipsum, as the
English would lead us to expect.]