Heavy Construction

The Allen and Greenough is still under construction; so some links may not work quite the way you would expect.


The main uses of híc, ille, iste, and is are the following: -

a. Híc is used of what is near the speaker (in time, place, or thought). It is hence called the demonstrative of the first person.

It is sometimes used of the speaker himself; sometimes for ``the latter'' of two persons or things mentioned in speech or writing; more rarely for ``the former,'' when that, though more remote on the written page, is nearer the speaker in time, place, or thought. Often it refers to that which has just been mentioned.

b. Ille is used of what is remote (in time, etc.); and is hence called the demonstrative of the third person.

It is sometimes used to mean ``the former''; also (usually following its noun) of what is famous or well-known; often (especially the neuter illud) to mean ``the following.''

c. Iste is used of what is between the two others in remoteness: often in allusion to the person addressed, - hence called the demonstrative of the second person.

It especially refers to one's opponent (in court, etc.), and frequently implies antagonism or contempt.

d. Is is a weaker demonstrative than the others and is especially common as a personal pronoun. It does not denote any special object, but refers to one just mentioned, or to be afterwards explained by a relative. Often it is merely a correlative to the relative quí: -

e. The pronouns híc, ille, and is are used to point in either direction, back to something just mentioned or forward to something about to be mentioned.

The neuter forms often refer to a clause, phrase, or idea: -

f. The demonstratives are sometimes used as pronouns of reference, to indicate with emphasis a noun or phrase just mentioned: -

NOTE: But the ordinary English use of that of is hardly known in Latin. Commonly the genitive construction is continued without a pronoun, or some other construction is preferred: -