a. Vowels. A vowel before another vowel or h is short: as, via, trahó.
NOTE: It was once long in these also: as, plénus fidéí (Ennius, at the end of a hexameter). A is also long before í in the old genitive of the first declension: as, auláí.
NOTE: But many Greek words are more or less Latinized in this respect: as, Académia, chorea, Malea, platea.
5. In d=ius, in eheu usually, and sometimes in Diána and ohe, the first vowel is long.
b. Diphthongs. A Diphthong is long: as, foedus, cui,[Rarely dissyllabic cui (as Mart. i. 104. 22).] aula.
Exception. - The preposition prae in compounds is generally shortened before a vowel: as, prae-ustís (Aen. vii. 524), prae-eunte (id. v. 186).
NOTE: U following q, s, or g, does not make a diphthong with a following vowel (see § 5. N. 2). For a-ió, ma-ior, pe-ior, etc., see § 11. d and N.
c. Contraction. A vowel formed by contraction (crasis) is long: as, níl, from nihil; cógó for co-agó; máló for má-voló.
NOTE: Two vowels of different syllables may be run together without full contraction (syniz=esis, § 642): as, deinde (for deinde), meós (for meós); and often two syllables are united by Synaeresis (§ 642) without contraction: as when parietibus is pronounced paryetibus.
d. A vowel before ns, nf, gn, is long: as, ínstó, ínfáns, sígnum.
e. A syllable is long if it contains a long vowel or a diphthong: as, cá-rus, ó-men, foe-dus.
f. Position. A syllable is long by
position if its vowel, though short, is followed by two consonants
or a double consonant: as, adventus,
But if the two consonants are a mute followed by 1 or r the syllable
may be either long or short ( Vowels should be pronounced long or short in accordance with their
natural quantity without regard to the length of the syllable by position.
NOTE 1: The rules of Position do not, in general, apply to
final vowels before a word beginning with two consonants.
NOTE 2: A syllable is long if its vowel is followed by
consonant i (except in biiugis, quadriiugis): see § 11.
NOTE 3: Compounds of iació, though written with one i,
commonly retain the long vowel of the prepositions with which they are
compounded, as if before a consonant, and, if the vowel of the preposition
is short, the first syllable is long by position on the principle of
obicis hostí (at the end of a hexameter, Aen. iv. 549).
But if the two consonants are a mute followed by 1 or r the syllable may be either long or short (common) ; as, alacris or alacris; patris or patris.
Vowels should be pronounced long or short in accordance with their natural quantity without regard to the length of the syllable by position.
NOTE 1: The rules of Position do not, in general, apply to final vowels before a word beginning with two consonants.
NOTE 2: A syllable is long if its vowel is followed by consonant i (except in biiugis, quadriiugis): see § 11.d.
NOTE 3: Compounds of iació, though written with one i, commonly retain the long vowel of the prepositions with which they are compounded, as if before a consonant, and, if the vowel of the preposition is short, the first syllable is long by position on the principle of § 11.e.
NOTE 4: The y or w sound resulting from
synaeresis (§ 642) has the effect
of a consonant in making position: as, abietis
fluviórum (fluvy=orum). Conversely, when the semivowel becomes a vowel,
position is lost: as, siluae, for silvae.
604. The Quantity of Final Syllables is as follows:
a.Monosyllables ending in a vowel are long: as, mé, tú, hí, né.
1. The attached particles -ne, -que, -ve, -ce, -pte, and re- (red-) are short; sé- (séd-) and dí- are long. Thus, sécédit, séditió, exercitumque redúcit, dímittó. But re- is often long in réligió (relligió), rétulí (rettulí), répulí (reppulí).
b. Nouns and adjectives of one syllable are long: as, sól, ós (óris), bós, pár, vás (vásis), vér, vís.
Exceptions. - cor, fel,
lac, mel, os (ossis), vas (vadis), vir, tot, quot.
c.Most monosyllabic Particles are short: as, an, in, cis, nec. But crás, cúr, én, nón, quín, sín - with adverbs in c: as, híc, húc, síc - are long.
d. Final a in words declined by cases is short, except in the ablative singular of the first declension ; in all other words final a is long. Thus, ea stella (nominative), cum eá stellá (ablative) ; frústrá, vocá (imperative), posteá, trígintá.
éia, ita, quia, puta (suppose); and, in late use, tríginta etc.
e.Final e is short: as in núbe, dúcite, saepe.
Exceptions. - Final e is
long - 1. In adverbs formed from adjectives of the first and second
declension, with others of like form: as, alté, longé,
miseré, aperté, saepissimé. So feré,
But it is short in bene, male ; ínferne, superne.
But it is short in bene, male ; ínferne, superne.2. In nouns of the fifth declension: as, fidé (also famé), facié, hodié, quáré (quá ré).
3. In Greek neuters plural of the second declension: as, cété; and in some other Greek words: Phoebé, Circé, Andromaché, etc.
4. In the imperative singular of the second conjugation: as, vidé.
But sometimes cave, habe, tace, vale, vide (cf. § 629. b. 1).
f.Final i is long: as in turrí, fílí, audí.
Exceptions. - Final i is
common in mihi, tibi, sibi, ibi, ubi ; and short in nisi, quasi,
sícuti, cui (when making two syllables), and in Greek vocatives:
g.Final o is common: but long in datives and ablatives; also in nouns of the third declension. It is almost invariably long in verbs before the time of Ovid.
Exceptions. - cito, modo
(dummodo), immo, profecto, ego, duo, cedo (the imperative); so sometimes
octo, ílico, etc., particularly in later writers.
h.Final u is long. Final y is short
i. Final as, es, os, are long ; final is, as, ys, are short: as, nefás, rúpés, servós (accusative), honós ; hostis, amícus, Tethys.
Exceptions. - 1. as is
short in Greek plural accusatives: as, lampadas ; and in anas.
2. es is short in the nominative of nouns of the third
declension (lingual) having a short vowel in the stem
4. is in plural cases is long: as in bonís, nóbís, vóbís, omnís (accusative plural).
5. is is long in the verb forms fís, sís, vís (with quívís etc.), velís, málís, nólís, edís ; in the second person singular of the present indicative active in the fourth conjugation: as, audís ; and sometimes in the forms in -eris (future perfect indicative or perfect subjunctive).
6. us is long in the genitive singular and nominative, accusative, and vocative plural of the fourth declension ; and in nouns of the third declension having ú (long) in the stem: as, virtús (-útis), incús (-údis). But pecus, -udis.
j. Of other final syllables, those ending in a single consonant are short Thus, amat, amátur ; dónec, fac, procul, iubar.
Exceptions. - híc
(also híc); alléc; the ablatives illóc, etc.; certain
adverbs in -c: as, illíc, istúc; lién, and some
Greek nouns: as, áér, aethér, crátér.