The Allen and Greenough is still under construction;
so some links may not work quite the way you would expect.
[For the classification of conjunctions, see §§223, 224.]
323. Copulative and Disjunctive Conjunctions connect
similar constructions, and are regularly followed by the same case or mood
that precedes them: -
- scriptum senatum et populo
(Cat. iii. 10), written to the senate and people.
- ut eas [partis] sanares et
confirmares (Mil. 68), that you might cure and strengthen those
- neque mea prudentia neque humanis consiliis
fretus (Cat. ii. 29), relying neither on my own foresight nor
a. Conjunctions of Comparison (as ut, quam, tamquam, quasi) also commonly connect
similar constructions: -
- his igitur quam physicis potius
credendum existimas (Div. ii. 3,), do you think these are more
to be trusted than the natural philosophers?
- hominem calidiorem vidi neminem quam
Phormionem (Ter. Ph. 591), a shrewder man I never saw than
Phormio (cf. §407.)
- ut non omne vinum sic non omnis natura
vetustate coacescit (Cat. M. 65), as every wine does not sour
with age, so [does] not every nature.
- in me quasi in tyrannum
(Phil. xiv. 15), against me as against a tyrant.
b. Two or more coordinate words, phrases,
or sentences are often put together without the use of conjunctions
(Asyndeton, §601. c):
- omnes di, homines, all gods
- summi, medii, infimi, the
highest, the middle class, and the lowest.
- iura, leges, agros, libertatem nobis
reliquerunt (B. G. vii. 77), they have left us our rights, our
laws, our fields, our liberty.
c. 1. Where there are more than two
coordinate words etc., a conjunction, if used, is ordinarily used with all
(or all except the first): -
- aut aere alieno aut magnitudine
tributorum aut iniuria potentiorum (B. G. vi. 13), by debt,
excessive taxation, or oppression on the part of the powerful.
- at sunt morosi et anxii et iracundi et
difficiles senes (Cat. M. 65), but (you say) old men are
capricious, solicitous, choleric, and fussy.
2. But words are often so divided into
groups that the members of the groups omit the conjunction (or express it), while the groups themselves express the conjunction (or omit it): -
- propudium illud et portentum, L.
Antonius msigne odium omnium hominum (Phil. xiv. 8), that wretch
and monster, Lucius Antonius, the abomination of all men.
- utrumque egit graviter, auctaritate et
offensione animi non acerba (Lael. 77), he acted in both cases
with dignity, without loss of authority and with no bitterness of
3. The enclitic -que is sometimes used
with the last member of a series, even when there is no grouping apparent:
- voce voltu motuque (Brut. 110),
by voice, expression, and gesture.
- curam consilium vigilantiamque
(Phil. vii. 20), care, wisdom, and vigilance.
- quarum auctoritatem dignitatem
voluntatemque defenderas (Fam. i. 7. 2), whose dignity, honor,
and wishes you had defended.
d. Two adjectives belonging to the same
noun are regularly con- nected by a conjunction: -
- multae et graves causae, many
- vir liber ac fortis (Rep. ii. 34),
a free and brave man.
e. Often the same conjunction is repeated
in two coordinate clases:
- et ... et (-que . . . -que),
- aut... aut, either...or.
- vel ... vel, either ... or.
[Examples in §324. e.]
- sive (seu) ... sive (seu), whether ...
or. Examples in §324.f.
f. Many adverbs are similarly used in
pairs, as conjunctions, partly or wholly losing their adverbial force: -
- nunc ... nunc, tum...tum, iam ...
iam, now... now.
- modo... modo, now... now.
- simul ... simul, at the same time
... at the same time.
- qua ... qua, now ... now, both .
. and, alike [this] and [that].
- modo ait modo negat (Ter. Eun. 714),
now he says yes, now no.
- simul gratias agit, simul gratulatur
(Q. C. vi. 70 15), he thanks him and at the same time congratulates
- erumpunt saepe vitia amicorum tum in ipsos
amicos tum in alienas (Lael. 76), the faults of friends
sometimes break out, now against their friends themselves, now against
- qua maris qua feminas
(Pl. Mil. 1113), both males and females.
g. Certain relative and demonstrative
adverbs are used correlatively as conjunctions: -
- ut (rel.) ... ita, sic (dem.), as (while) ... so (yet).
- tam (dem.) ... quam (rel.), so (as) ... as.
- cum (rel.) ... tum (dem.), while ... so also; not only.... but