a. Etiam (et iam), also, even, is stronger than quoque, also, and usually precedes the emphatic word, while quoque follows it: -
b. Nunc[For ¥num-ce; cf. tunc (for ¥tum-ce).] means definitely now, in the immediate present, and is rarely used of the immediate past.
Iam means now, already, at length, presently, and includes a reference to previous time through which the state of things described has been or will be reached. It may be used of any time. With negatives iam means (no) longer.
Tum, then, is correlative to cum, when, and may be used of any time. Tunc, then, at that time, is a strengthened form of tum (¥tum-ce, cf. nunc): -
c. Certo means certainly, certe (usually) at least, at any rate: -
d. Primum means first (first in order; or for the first time), and implies a series of events or acts. Primo means at first, as opposed to afterwards, giving prominence merely to the difference of time: -
NOTE: In enumerations, primum (or primo) is often followed by deinde, secondly, in the next place or by tum, then, or by both in succession. Deinde may be several times repeated (secondly, thirdly, etc.). The series is often closed by denique or postremo, lastly, finally. Thus, - primum de gellere belli, deinde de magnitudine, tum de imperatore deligendo (Manil. 6) first of the kind of war, next of its magnitude, then of the choice of a commamder.
e. Quidem, indeed, gives emphasis, and often has a concessive meaning, especially when followed by sed, autem, etc.: -
f. Ne ... quidem means not even or not . . . either. The emphatic word or words must stand between ne and quidem: -
NOTE: Equidem has the same senses as quidem, but is in Cicero confined to the first person. Thus, - equidem adprobabo (Fam. ii. 3. 2) If or my part shall approve.