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Special Uses of the Relative.


In the use of Relatives, the following points are to be observed: -

a. The relative is never omitted in Latin, as it often is in English: -

b. When two relative clauses are connected by a copulative conjunction, a relative pronoun sometimes stands in the first and a demonstrative in the last: -

c. A relative clause in Latin often takes the place of some other construction in English, - particularly of a participle, an appositive, or a noun of agency: -

d. In formal or emphatic discourse, the relative clause usually comes first, often containing the antecedent noun (cf. § 307. b): -

NOTE: In eolloquial language, the relative clause in such cases often contains a redundant demonstrative pronoun which logically belongs in the antecedent clause: as, - ille quí cónsulté cavet, diútiné utí bene licet partum bene (Plaut. Rud. 1240) he who is on his guard, he may long enjoy what he has well obtained.

e. The relative with an abstract noun may be used in a parenthetical clause to characterize a person, like the English such: -

f. A relative pronoun (or adverb) often stands at the beginning of an independent sentence or clause, serving to connect it with the sentence or clause that precedes: -

NOTE: This arrangement is common even when another relative or an interrogative follows. The relative may usually be translated by an English demonstrative, with or without and.

g. A relative adverb is regularly used in referring to an antecedent in the Locative case; so, often, to express any relation of place instead of the formal relative pronoun: -

h. The relatives quí, quális, quantus, quot, etc. are often rendered simply by as in English: -

i. The general construction of relatives is found in clauses introduced by relative adverbs: as, ubi, quó, unde, cum, quáré.