The Allen and Greenough is still under construction;
so some links may not work quite the way you would expect.
Special Uses of the Relative.
308. In the use of Relatives, the following points
are to be observed: -
a. The relative is never omitted in Latin,
as it often is in English: -
- liber quem mihi
dedistí, the book you gave me.
- is sum quí semper
fuí, I am the same man I always was.
- eó in locó est dé
quó tibi locútus sum, he is in the place
told you of.
b. When two relative clauses are connected
by a copulative conjunction, a relative pronoun sometimes stands in the
first and a demonstrative in the last: -
- erat profectus obviam legiónibus
Macedonicís quattuor, quas sibi conciliáre
pecúniá cógitábat eásque ad
urbem addúcere (Fam. xii. 23. 2), he had set out to meet
four legions from Macedonia, which he thought to win over to himself by
gift of money and to lead (them) to the city.
c. A relative clause in Latin often takes
the place of some other construction in English, - particularly of a
participle, an appositive, or a noun of agency: -
- légés quae nunc
sunt, the existing laws (the laws which now exist).
- Caesar quí Galliam
vícit, Caesar the conqueror of Gaul.
- iústa glória quí est
frúctus virtútis (Pison. 57), true glory
[which is] the fruit of virtue.
- ille quí petit, the
plaintiff (he who sues).
- quí legit, a reader
(one who reads).
d. In formal or emphatic discourse, the
relative clause usually comes first, often containing the antecedent noun
(cf. § 307. b): -
- quae pars cívitátis Helvétiae
ínsígnem calamitátem populó
Rómánó intulerat, ea prínceps
poenás persolvit (B. G. i. 12), the portion of the
Helvetian state which had brought a serious disaster on the Roman people
was the first to pay the penalty.
NOTE: In eolloquial language, the relative clause in such
cases often contains a redundant demonstrative pronoun which logically
belongs in the antecedent clause: as, - ille
quí cónsulté cavet, diútiné utí
bene licet partum bene (Plaut. Rud. 1240) he who is on his
guard, he may long enjoy what he has well obtained.
e. The relative with an abstract noun may
be used in a parenthetical clause to characterize a person, like
the English such: -
- quae vestra prúdentia est
(Cael. 46), such is your wisdom. [Equivalent to pró vestrá
cómoedós vel léctórem vel lyristén,
vel, quae mea líberálitás, omnés
(Plin. Ep. i. 15), you would have listened to comedians, or a reader,
or a lyre-player, or - such is my liberality - to all of them.
f. A relative pronoun (or adverb) often
stands at the beginning of an independent sentence or clause, serving to
connect it with the sentence or clause that precedes: -
- Caesar statuit exspectandam classem;
quae ubi convenit (B. G. iii. 14), Caesar decided that
must wait for the fleet; and when this had come together, etc.
- quae quí audiébant, and those who heard
this (which things).
- quae cum ita sint, and since this is so.
- quórum quod simile factum (Cat. iv. 13), what deed of
theirs like this?
- quó cum vénisset, and when he had come
there (whither when he had come).
NOTE: This arrangement is common even when another relative or
an interrogative follows. The relative may usually be translated by an
English demonstrative, with or without and.
g. A relative adverb is regularly used in
referring to an antecedent in the Locative case; so, often, to express any
relation of place instead of the formal relative pronoun: -
- mortuus Cúmís
quó sé contulerat (Liv. ii. 21), having
died at Cumae, whither he had retired. [Here in quam urbem might be used, but not in quás.]
- locus quó aditus nón
erat, a place to which (whither) there was no access.
- régna unde genus
dúcis (Aen. v. 801), the kingdom from which you derive
- unde petitur, the
defendant (he from whom something is demanded).
h. The relatives quí, quális, quantus, quot, etc.
are often rendered simply by as in English: -
- idem quod semper, the
same as always.
- cum esset tális quálem
té esse vídeó (Mur. 32), since he was
such a man as I see you are.
- tanta dímicátió
quanta numquam fuit (Att. vii. 1. 2), such a fight as
never was before.
- tot mala quot sídera
(Ov. Tr. i. 5. 47), as many troubles as stars in the sky.
i. The general construction of relatives
is found in clauses introduced by relative adverbs: as, ubi, quó, unde, cum,