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Adjectives used Substantively.


Adjectives are often used as Nouns (substantively), the masculine usually to denote men or people in general of that kind, the feminine women, and the neuter things: - 

omnés, all men (everybody). omnia, all things (everything)
mâiórés, ancestors. minórés, descendants.
Rómání, Romans barbarí, barbarians.
líberta, a freedwoman. Sabínae, the Sabine women.
sapiéns, a sage (philosopher). amícus, a friend.
boní, the good (good people). bona, goods, property.

NOTE: The plural of adjectives, pronouns, and participles is very common in this use. The singular is comparatively rare except in the neuter (§ 289. a, c) and in words that have become practically nouns.

a. Certain adjectives have become practically nouns, and are often modified by other adjectives or by the possessive genitive: -

b. When ambiguity would arise from the substantive use of an adjective, a noun must be added: -

c. Many adjectives are used substantively either in the singular or the plural, with the added meaning of some noun which is understood from constant association: -

NOTE: These adjectives are specific in meaning, not generic like those in § 288. They include the names of winds and months (§ 31).

For Nouns used as Adjectives, see § 321. c.

For Adverbs used like Adjectives, see § 321. d.