a. The Present Participle (ending in -ns) has commonly the same meaning and use as the English participle in -ing; as, vocáns, calling; legentés, reading. (For its inflection, see egéns, § 118.)
b. The Future Participle (ending in -úrus) is oftenest used to express what is likely or about to happen: as, réctúrus, about to rule audítúrus, about to hear.
NOTE: With the tenses of esse, to be, it forms the First Periphrastic Conjugation (see § 195): as, urbs est cásúra, the city is about to fall; mánsúrus eram, I was goi[QUERY] to stay.
c. The Perfect Participle (ending in -tus, -sus) has two uses: -
NOTE: There is no Perfect Active or Present Passive Participle in Latin. F[QUERY] substitutes see §§ 492, 493.
d. The Gerundive (ending in -ndus), has two uses: -
NOTE: When thus used with the tenses of the verb to be (esse) it forms the Seco[QUERY] Periphrastic Conjugation: déligendus erat, he ought to have been chosen (§ 196).
2. In the oblique cases the Gerundive commonly has the same meaning as the Gerund (cf. § 159. a), though its construction is different. (F[QUERY] examples, see § 503 ff.)