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Irregular Nouns of the Third Declension.


In many nouns the stem is irregularly modified in the nominative or other cases. Some peculiar forms are thus declined: -

bós, C. senex, M. caró, F. os, N. vís, F.
ox, cow old man flesh bone force



s senex caró os s
GEN. bovis senis carnis ossis vís (rare)
DAT. boví sení carní ossí (rare)
ACC. bovem senem carnem os vim
ABL. bove sene carne osse


cattle strength
NOM. bovés senés carnés ossa vírés
GEN. boum senum carnium ossium vírium
DAT. bus (bus) senibus carnibus ossibus víribus
ACC. bovés senés carnés ossa vírís (-és)
ABL. bus (bus) senibus carnibus ossibus víribus

sús, C. Iuppiter, M. nix, F. iter, N.
swine Jupiter snow march


NOM. s Iuppiter[1][Also íúpiter.] nix
GEN. suis Iovis nivis itineris
DAT. suí Ioví niví itinerí
ACC. suem Iovem nivem iter
ABL. sue Iove nive itinere


sués nivés itinera
GEN. suum nivium itinerum
DAT. bus (suibus) nivibus itineribus
ACC. sués nivés itinera
ABL. bus (suibus) nivibus itineribus

a. Two vowel-stems in ú-, grú- and sú-, which follow the third declension add s in the nominative, and are inflected like mute stems: grús has also a nominative gruis; sús has both suibus and súbus in the dative and ablative plural, grús has only gruibus.

b. In the stem bov- (bou-) the diphthong ou becomes ó in the nominative (bós, bovis).

In náv- (nau-) an i is added (návis, -is), and it is declined like turris (§ 67).

In Iov- ( Z) the diphthong (ou) becomes ú in Iú-piter (for -pater) genitive Iovis, etc.; but the form Iuppiter is preferred.

c. In iter, itineris (N.), iecur, iecinoris (iecoris) (N.), supelléx, supelléctili (F.), the nominative has been formed from a shorter stem; in senex, senis from a longer; so that these words show a combination of forms from two distinct stems.

d. In nix, nivis the nominative retains a g from the original stem, the uniting with s, the nominative ending, to form x. In the other cases the stem assumes the form niv- and it adds i in the genitive plural.

e. Vás (N.), vásis, keeps s throughout; plural vása, vásórum. A dative plural vásibus also occurs. There is a rare singular vásum.