- quid magis Epamínóndam,
Thébánórum imperátórem, quam
victóriae Thébánórum cónsulere
decuit (Inv. i. 69), what should Epaminondas, commander of
the THEBANS, have aimed at more than the VICTORY of the
- lacrimá nihil citius
áréscit (id. i. 109), nothing dries quicker than
- némó feré
laudis cupidus (De Or. i. 14), hardly any one desirous
of GLORY (cf. Manil. 7, avidí laudis, EAGER for glory).
b. Numeral adjectives, adjectives of
quantity, demonstrative, relative, and interrogative pronouns and adverbs,
tend to precede the word or words to which they belong: -
- cum aliquá
perturbátióne (Off. i. 137), with SOME
- hóc únó
praestámus (De Or. i. 32), in THIS one thing we
- céterae feré
artés, the OTHER
- NOTE: This happens because such words are usually
emphatic; but often the words connected with them are more so, and in such
cases the pronouns etc. yield the emphatic place: -
- (De Or. i. 250), some CASE.
stilus ille tuus (id. i. 257),
that well-known STYLE of yours (in an antithesis; see passage). [Ille is idiomatic in this sense and position.]
Rómam quae apportáta
sunt (Verr. iv. 121), what were carried to ROME (in contrast to what remained at Syracuse).
c. When sum is used as the Substantive verb
(§ 284. b), it regularly stands first, or at any rate before
its subject: -
- est virí mágní
púníre sontis (Off. i. 82), it is the duty of
great man to punish the guilty.
d. The verb may come first, or have a
prominent position, either (1) because the idea in it is emphatic;
or (2) because the predication of the whole statement is emphatic
or (3) the tense only may be emphatic: -
- (1) dícébat idem Cotta (Off. ii. 59), Cotta used to SAY the same thing (opposed to others' boasting).
- idem fécit
aduléscéns M. Antónius (id. ii. 49),
the same thing was DONE by Mark Antony in his youth.
[Opposed to díxí just
- facis amícé
(Lael. 9), you ACT kindly. [Cf. amícé facis, you are very
KIND (you act KINDLY).]
- (2) própénsior
benígnitás esse débébit in
calamitósós nisi forte erunt d=ign=i calamit=ate (Off. ii. 62),
liberality ought to be readier toward the unfortunate unless perchance
they REALLY DESERVE their misfortune.
- praesertim cum scríbat
(Panaetius) (id. iii. 8), especially when he DOES SAY (in his books). [Opposed to something omitted by him.]
- (3) fuimus Tr=oes, fuit =ilium (Aen. ii. 325), we have
CEASED to be Trojans, Troy is now no MORE.
- loquor autem dé
commúnibus amícitiís (Off. iii. 45), but
I am SPEAKING NOW of common friendships.
e. Often the connection of two emphatic
phrases is brought about by giving the precedence to the most prominent
part of each and leaving the less prominent parts to follow in
inconspicuous places: -
- plúrés solent esse causae
(Off. i. 28), there are USUALLY SEVERAL reasons.
- quós ámísimus
cívís, eós Mártis vís perculit
(Marc. 17), WHAT fellow-citizens we have LOST, have been
stricken down by the violence of war.
- maximás tibi omnés
grátiás agimus (id. 33), we ALL render
you the WARMEST thanks.
- haec rés úníus est
propria Caesaris (id. 11), THIS exploit belongs to Caesar
etiam nón numquam incidunt necessáriae (Off. i. 136), OCCASIONS FOR REBUKE also SOMETIMES occur which are
f. Antithesis between two pairs of ideas
is indicated by placing the pairs either (1) in the same order
(anaphora) or (2) in exactly the opposite order (chiasmus):
- (1) rérum cópia
verbórum cópiam gignit (De Or. iii. 125), ABUNDANCE
of MATTER produces COPIOUSNESS of EXPRESSION.
- (2) légés supplició
improbós afficiunt, défendunt ac tuentur bonós (Legg. ii. 13), the laws VISIT PUNISHMENTS upon the
WICKED, but the GOOD they DEFEND and PROTECT.
NOTE: Chiasmus is very common in Latin, and often seems in
fact the more inartificial construction. In an artless narrative one
might hear, ``The women were all drowned, they saved the
- nón igitur útilitátem
amícitia sed útilitás amícitiam
cónsecúta est (Lael. 51), it is not then that
friendship has followed upon advantage, but advantage upon friendship.
[Here the chiasmus is only grammatical, the ideas being in the parallel
order.] (See also p. 395: longissimé, minimé, proximí.)
g. A modifier of a phrase or some part of
it is often embodied within the phrase (cf. a): -
- dé commúní hominum
memoriá (Tusc. i. 59), in regard to the UNIVERSAL
memory of man.
h. A favorite order with the poets is the
interlocked, by which the attribute of one pair comes between the
parts of the other (synchysis): -
- et superiectó pavidae
natárunt aequore dammae (Hor. Od. i. 2. 11).
NOTE: This is often joined with chiasmus: as, - arma n=ondum
expi=at=is =uncta cru=oribus (id. ii. 1. 5).
i. Frequently unimportant words follow in
the train of more emphatic ones with which they are grammatically
connected, and so acquire a prominence out of proportion to their
- dictitábat sé hortulós
aliquós emere velle (Off. iii. 58), he gave out that
he wanted to buy some gardens. [Here aliquós is less emphatic than emere, but precedes it on account of the
emphasis on hortulós.]
j. The copula is generally felt to be of
so little importance that it may come in anywhere where it sounds well;
but usually under cover of more emphatic words: -
- cónsul ego quaesíví,
cum vós mihi essétis in cónsilió (Rep. iii. 28), as consul I held an investigation in which you attended me
- falsum est id tótum (id. ii. 28), that is all false.
k. Many expressions have acquired an
invariable order: -
- rés pública; populus
Rómánus ; honóris causá; páce
- NOTE: These had, no doubt, originally an emphasis which
required such an arrangement, but in the course of time have changed their
shade of meaning. Thus, senátus
populusque Rómánus originally stated with
emphasis the official bodies, but became fixed so as to be the only
permissible form of expression.
- 1. The Romans had a fondness for emphasizing persons, so
that a name or a pronoun often stands in an emphatic place: -
(Off. iii. 58), [said] that he didn't have any gardens for sale, to be
- [d=ixit] v=en=al=is quidem sé hort=os n=on hab=ere
m. Kindred words often come together
(fig=ura etymologica): -
- ita sénsim sine sénsú
aetás senéscit (Cat. M. 38), thus gradually,
without being perceived, man's life grows old.