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Case-Forms in the First Declension.

43. a. The genitive singular anciently ended in -áí (disyllabic), which is occasionally found; as, auláí. The same ending sometimes occurs in the dative, but only as a diphthong.

b. An old genitive in -ás is preserves in the word familiás, ofren used in the combinations pater (máter, fílius, fília) familiás, tather, etc., of a family (plur. pátres familiás or familiárum.

c. The Locative form for the singular ends in -ae; for the plural in -ís (cf. § 80, footnote).

d. The genitive plural is sometimes found in -um instead of árum, especially in Greek patronymics, as, Aeneadum, sons of Aeneas, and in compounds with -cola and -gena, signifying dwelling and descent: as, caelicolum, celestials; Tróiugenum, sons of Troy; so also in the Greek nouns amphora and drachma.

e. The dative and ablative plural of dea, goddess, fília, daughter, end in an older form -ábus (deábus, fíliábus) to distinguish them from the corresponding cases of deus, god, and fílius, son (deís, fíliís). So rarely with other words, as, líberta, freed-woman; múla, she-mule; equa, mare. But, except when the two sexes are mentioned together (as in formulas, documents, etc.), the form in -ís is preferred in all but dea and fília.

NOTE 1: The old ending of the ablative singular (-ád) is sometimes retained in early Latin: as, praidád, booty (later, praedá).

NOTE 2: In the dative and ablative plural -eis for -ís is sometimes found, ans -iís (as in taeniís) is occasionally contracted to -ís (taemís); so regularly in words in -âia (as, Bâís from Bâiae).

Greek Nouns of the First Declension.


Many nouns of the First Declension borrowed from the Greek are entirely Latinized (as, aula, court); but others retain traces of their Greek case-forms in the singular.

o Electra, F. synopsis, F. art of music, F.
o NOM. Électra (-á) epitomé música (é)
o GEN. Électrae epitomés músicae (és)
o DAT. Électrae epitomae músicae
o ACC. Électram (-án) epitomén músicam (én)
o ABL. Électrá epitomé músicá (é)
o Andromache, F. AEneas, M.
o NOM. Andromaché (-a) Aenéás Persés (-a)
o GEN. Andromachés (-ae) Aenéae Persae
o DAT. Andromachae Aenéae Persae
o ACC. Andromachén (-am) Aenéán (-am) Persén (ám)
o ABL. Andromaché (-á) Aenéá Persé (á)
o VOC. Andromaché (-a) Aenéá (-a) Persá
o Anchises, F. son of AEneas, M. comet, M.
o NOM. Anchísés Aeneadés (-a) cométés (-a)
o GEN. Anchísae Aeneadae cométae
o DAT. Anchísae Aeneadae cométae
o ACC. Anchísén (-am) Aeneadén cométén (ám)
o ABL. Anchísé (-á) Aeneadé (-á) cométá (é)
o VOC. Anchísé (-á, -a) Aeneadé (-a) cométa

There are (besides proper names) about thirty-five of these words, several being names of plants or arts: as, crambé, cabbage; músicé, music. Most have also regular Latin forms: as, cométa; but the nominative sometimes has the a long.

a. Greek forms are found only in the singular; the plural, when it occurs, is regular; as, cométae, -árum, etc.

b. Many Greek nouns vary between the first, the secone, and the third declensions: as, Boótae (genitive of Boótés, -ís), Thúcýdidás (accusative plural of Thúcýdidés, -ís). See §52. a and § 81.

NOTE: The Greek accusative Scípiadam, from Scípiadés, descendent of the Scipios, is found in Horace.