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Abstract Nouns, mostly from adjective-stems, rarely from noun-stems, are formed by means of the secondary feminine suffixes -

-ia (-iés), -tia (-tiés), -tás, -tús, -túdó audác-ia, boldness;
pauper-iés, poverty; pauper, poor.
trísti-tia, sadness; trístis, sad.
ségni-tiés, laziness; ségnis, lazy.
boni-tás, goodness; bonus, good.
senec-tús, age; senex, old.
mágni-túdó, greatness; mágnus, great.

1. In stems ending in o- or á- the stem-vowel is lost before -ia (as superb-ia) and appears as i before -tás, -tús, -tia (as in boni-tás, above).

2. Consonant stems often insert i before -tás: as, loquáx (stem loquác-), loquáci-tás; but hones-tás, maies-tás (as if from old adjectives in -es), úber-tás, volup-tás. o after i is changed to e: as, pius (stem pio-), pie-tás; socius, socie-tás.

a. In like manner -dó and -gó (F.) form abstract nouns, but are associated with verbs and apparently added to verb-stems: -

NOTE: Of these, -ia is inherited as secondary (cf. § 234. II. 11). -tia is formed by adding -ia to stems with a t -suffix: as, mílitia, from míles (stem mílit-); molestia from molestus; clémentia from cléméns; whence by analogy, mali-tia, avári-tia. -tás is inherited, but its component parts, tá- ti-, are found as suffixes in the same sense: as, senecta from senex; sémen-tis from sémen. -tús is tú- + ti-, cf. servitú-dó. -dó and -gó appear only with long vowels, as from verb-stems, by a false analogy; but -dó is do- ón-: as, cupidus, cupídó; gravidus, gravédó (cf. gravé-scó); albidus, albédó (cf. albéscó); formidus, hot, formídó (cf. formídulósus), (hot flash?) fear; -gó is possibly co- + ón-; cf. voráx, vorágó, but cf. Cethégus. -túdó is compounded of -dó with tu -stems, which acquire a long vowel from association with verb-stems in u- (cf. volúmen, from volvó): as, cónsuétú-dó, valétú-dó, habitú-dó, sollicitú-dó; whence servitúdó (cf. servitús, -t=utis).

b. Neuter Abstracts, which easily pass into concretes denoting offices and groups, are formed from noun-stems and perhaps from verb-stems by means of the suffixes -

-ium, -tium

hospit-ium, hospitality, an inn;[1][The abstract meaning is put first.]

hospes (gen. hospit-is), a guest.
collég-ium, colleagueship, a college; colléga, a colleague.
auspic-ium, soothsaying, an omen; auspex (gen. auspic-is), a soothsayer.
gaud-ium, joy; gaudére, to rejoice.
effug-ium, escape; effugere, to escape.
benefic-ium, a kindness; benefacere, to benefit; cf. beneficus.
désíder-ium, longing; désíderáre, to miss, from dé-sídés, out
of place, of missing soldiers.
adverb-ium, adverb; ad verbum, [added] to a verb.
interlún-ium, time of new moon; inter lúnás, between moons.
régifug-ium, flight of the kings; régis fuga, flight of a king.
servi-tium, slavery, the slave class; servus, a slave.

Vowel stems lose their vowel before -ium: as, collég-ium, from colléga.

NOTE: -ium is the neuter of the adjective suffix -ius. It is an inherited primary suffix, but is used with great freedom as secondary. -tium is formed like -tia, by adding -ium to stems with t: as, exit-ium, equit-ium (cf. exitus, equités); so, by analogy, calvitium, servitium (from calvus, servus).

c. Less commonly, abstract nouns (which usually become concrete) are formed from noun-stems (confused with verb-stems) by means of the suffixes -

-nia, F.; -nium, -lium, -cinium, N.

pecú-nia, money (chattels);
contici-nium, the hush of night; conticéscere, to become still.
auxi-lium, help; augére, to increase.
látró-cinium, robbery; latró, robber (cf. latrócinor, rob, implying
an adjective latrócinus).

For Diminutives and Patronymics, see § § 243, 244.