The Allen and Greenough is still under construction;
so some links may not work quite the way you would expect.
234. Examples of primary stem-suffixes are: -
I. Vowel suffixes: -
- 1. o- (M., N.), á- (F.), found in nouns and adjectives
of the first two declensions: as, sonus,
lúdus, vagus, toga (root TEG).
- 2. i-, as in ovis, avis; in Latin frequently changed, as in
rúpés, or lost, as in
scobs (scobis, root SCAB).
- 3. u-, disguised in most
adjectives by an additional i, as in
suá-vis (for suád-vis, instead of suá-dus, cf. ),
ten-uis (root TEN in tendó), and remaining alone only in
nouns of the fourth declension, as acus (root AK, sharp, in ácer, aciés, ),
II. Suffixes with a consonant: -
- 1. to- (M., N.), tá- (F.), in the regular perfect passive
participle, as téctus,
téctum; sometimes with an active sense, as in pótus, pránsus; and found in a
few words not recognized as participles, as pútus (cf. púrus), altus
- 2. ti- in abstracts and
rarely in nouns of agency, as messis, vestis,
pars, méns. But in many the i is lost.
- 3. tu- in abstracts
(including supines), sometimes becoming concretes, as áctus, lúctus.
- 4. no- (M., N.), ná- (F.), forming perfect participles
other languages, and in Latin making adjectives of like participial
meaning, which often become nouns, as mágnus, plénus, régnum.
- 5. ni-, in nouns of agency
and adjectives, as ígnis,
- 6. nu-, rare, as in manus, pínus, cornú.
- 7. mo- (má-), with
various meanings, as in animus, almus,
- 8. vo- (vá-)
(commonly uo-, uá-), with an
active or passive meaning, as in equus (equos),
arvum, cónspicuus, exiguus, vacívus (vacuus).
- 9. ro- (rá-), as in
ager (stem ag-ro-), integer (cf. intáctus), sacer, plérí-que (cf. plénus, plétus).
- 10. lo- (lá-), as in
caelum (for caed-lum), chisel, exemplum,
sella (for sedla).
- 11. yo- (yá-),
forming gerundives in other languages, and in Latin making adjectives and
abstracts, including many of the first and fifth declensions, as eximius, aúdácia, Flórentia,
- 12. ko- (ká-),
sometimes primary, as in paucí
(cf. o), locus
(for stíocus). In many cases
the vowel of this termination is lost, leaving a consonant stem: as,
apex, cortex, loquáx.
- 13. en- (on-, én-, ón-), in nouns of agency and abstracts: as, aspergó, compágó (-inis), geró
- 14. men-, expressing
means, often passing into the action itself: as, agmen, flúmen, fulmen.
- 15. ter- (tor-, tér-, tór-, tr-), forming nouns of agency: as, pater (i.e. protector), fráter (i.e. supporter),
- 16. tro-, forming nouns of
means: as, claustrum (CLAUD),
- 17. es- (os-), forming names
of actions, passing into concretes: as, genus
(generis), tempus (see § 15. 4). The infinitive in
-ere (as in reg-ere) is a locative of this stem (-er-e for -es-i).
- 18. nt- (ont-, ent-),
forming present active participles: as, legéns, with some adjectives from roots
unknown: as, frequéns,
The above, with some suffixes given below, belong to the Indo-European
parent speech, and most of them were not felt as living formations in the