1. á, ab, away from,[Ab signifies direction from the object, but often towards the speaker; compare d=e, down from, and ex, out of.] from, off from, with the ablative.
2. Ad, to, towards, at, near, with the accusative (cf. in, into).
d. Idiomatic uses: ad supplicia déscendunt, they resort to punishment; ad haec respondit, to this he answered; ad tempus, at the [fit] time; adíre ad rem públicam, to go into public life; ad petendam pácem, to seek peace; ad latera, on the flank; ad arma, to arms; ad hunc modum, in this way; quem ad modum, how, as; ad centum, nearly a hundred; ad hóc, besides; omnés ad únum, all to a man; ad diem, on the day.
3. Ante, in front of, before, with the accusative (cf. post, after).
a. Of place: as, - ante portam, in front of the gate; ante exercitum, in advance of the army.
b. Of time: as, - ante bellum, before the war.
c. Idiomatic uses: ante urbem captam, before the city was taken; ante diem quíntum (a.d.v.) Kal., the fifth day before the Calends; ante quadriennium, four years before or ago; ante tempus, too soon (before the time).
4. Apud, at, by, among, with the accusative.
a. Of place (rare and archaic): as, - apud forum, at the forum (in the marketplace).
b. With reference to persons or communities: as, - apud Helvétiós, among the Helvetians; apud populum, before the people; apud aliquem, at one's house; apud sé, at home or in his senses; apud Cicerónem, in [the works of] Cicero.
5. Circá, about, around, with the accusative (cf. circum, circiter).
a. Of place: templa circá forum, the temples about the forum; circá sé habet, he has with him (of persons).
b. Of time or number (in poetry and later writers): circá eandem hóram, about the same hour; circá ídús Octóbrís, about the fifteenth of October; circá decem mília, about ten thousand.
c. Figuratively (in later writers), about, in regard to (cf. dé): circá quem púgna est, with regard to whom, etc.; circá deós neglegentior, rather neglectful of (i.e. in worshipping) the gods.
6. Circiter, about, with the accusative.
a. Of time or number: circiter ídús Novembrís, about the thirteenth of November; circiter merídiem, about noon.
7. Circum, about, around, with the accusative.
a. Of place: circum haec loca, hereabout; circum Capuam, round Capua; circum illum, with him; légátió circum ínsulás missa, an embassy sent to the islands round about; circum amícós, to his friends round about.
8. Contrá, opposite, against, with the accusative.
a. Often as adverb: as, - haec contrá, this in reply; contrá autem, but on the other hand; quod contrá, whereas, on the other hand.
9. Cum, with, together with, with the ablative.
a. Of place: as, - váde mécum, go with me; cum omnibus impedímentís, with all [their] baggage.
b. Of time: as, - prímá cum lúce, at early dawn (with first light).
c. Idiomatic uses: mágnó cum dolóre, with great sorrow; commúnicáre aliquid cum aliquó, share something with some one; cum maló suó, to his own hurt; cónflígere cum hoste, to fight with the enemy; esse cum téló, to go armed; cum silentió, in silence.
10. Dé, down from, from, with the ablative (cf. ab, away from; ex, out of).
a. Of place: as, - dé caeló démissus, sent down from heaven; dé návibus désilíre, to jump down from the ships.
b. Figuratively, concerning, about, of:[Of originally meant from (cf. off).] as, - cógnóscit dé Clódí caede, he learns of the murder of Clodius; cónsilia dé belló, plans of war.
c. In a partitive sense (compare ex), out of, of: as, - únus dé plébe, one of the people.
d. Idiomatic uses: multís dé causís, for many reasons; quá dé causá, for which reason; dé impróvísó, of a sudden; dé industriá, on purpose; dé integró, anew; dé tertiá vigiliá, just at midnight (starting at the third watch); dé ménse Decembrí návigáre, to sail as early as December.
11. Ex, é, from (the midst, opposed to in), out of, with the ablative (cf. ab and dé).
a. Of place: as, - ex omnibus partibus silvae évolávérunt, they flew out from all parts of the forest; ex Hispániá, [a man] from Spain.
b. Of time: as, - ex eó dié quíntus, the fifth day from that (four days after); ex hóc dié, from this day forth.
c. Idiomatically or less exactly: ex c=onsul=at=u, right after his consulship; ex eius sententiá, according to his opinion ; ex aequó, justly; ex impróvísó, unexpectedly; ex tuá ré, to your advantage; mágná ex parte, in a great degree; ex equó púgnáre, to fight on horseback; ex úsú, expedient; é regióne, opposite; quaerere ex aliquó, to ask of some one; ex senátús cónsultó, according to the decree of the senate; ex fugá, in [their] flight (proceeding immediately from it); únus é fíliís, one of the sons.
12. In, with the accusative or the ablative.
1. With the accusative, into (opposed to ex).
a. Of place: as, - in Ítaliam contendit, he hastens into Italy.
b. Of time, till, until: as, - in lúcem, till daylight.
c. Idiomatically or less exactly: in merídiem, towards the south; amor in (ergá, adversus) patrem, love for his father; in áram cónfúgit, he fled to the altar (on the steps, or merely to); in diés, from day to day; in longitúdinem, lengthwise; in látitúdinem patébat, extended in width; in haec verba iúráre, to swear to these words; hunc in modum, in this way; órátió in Catilínam, a speech against
Catiline; in perpetuum, forever; in peius, for the worse; in diem vívere, to live from hand to mouth (for the day).
2. With the ablative, in, on, among.
In very various connections: as, - in castrís, in the camp (cf. ad castra, to, at, or near the camp); in marí, on the sea; in urbe esse, to be in town; in tempore, in season; in scríbendó, while writing; est mihi in animó, I have it in mind, I intend; in ancorís, at anchor; in hóc homine, in the case of this man; in dubió esse, to be in doubt.
13. Ínfrá, below, with the accusative.
a. Of place: as, - ad mare ínfrá oppidum, by the sea below the town; ínfrá caelum, under the sky.
b. Figuratively or less exactly: as, - ínfrá Homérum, later than Homer; ínfrá trés pedés, less than three feet; ínfrá elephantós, smaller than elephants; ínfrá ínfimós omnís, the lowest of the low.
14. Inter, between, among, with the accusative.
inter mé et Scípiónem, between myself and Scipio; inter ós et offam, between the cup and the lip (the mouth and the morsel); inter hostium téla, amid the weapons of the enemy; inter omnís prímus, first of all; inter bibendum, while drinking; inter sé loquuntur, they talk together.
15. Ob, towards, on account of, with the accusative.
a. Literally: (1) of motion (archaic): as, - ob Rómam, towards Rome (Ennius); ob viam, to the road (preserved as adverb, in the way of). (2) Of place in which, before, in a few phrases: as, - ob oculós, before the eyes.
b. Figuratively, in return for (mostly archaic, probably a word of account, balancing one thing against another): as, - ob mulierem, in pay for the woman; ob rem, for gain. Hence applied to reason, cause, and the like, on account of (a similar mercantile idea), for: as, - ob eam causam, for that reason; quam ob rem (quamobrem), wherefore, why.
16. Per, through, over, with the accusative.
a. Of motion: as, - per urbem íre, to go through the city; per múrós, over the walls.
b. Of time: as, - per hiemem, throughout the winter.
c. Figuratively, of persons as means or instruments: as, - per hominés idóneós, through the instrumentality of suitable persons; licet per mé, you (etc.) may for all me. Hence, stat per mé, it is through my instrumentality; so, per sé, in and of itself.
d. Weakened, in many adverbial expressions: as, - per iocum, in jest; per speciem, in show, ostentatiously.
17. Prae, in front of, with the ablative.
a. Literally, of place (in a few connections): as, - prae sé portáre, to carry in one's arms ; prae sé ferre, to carry before one. (hence figuratively) exhibit, proclaim ostentatiously, make known.
b. Figuratively, of hindrance, as by an obstacle in front (compare English for): as, - prae gaudió conticuit, he was silent for joy.
c. Of comparison: as, - prae mágnitúdine corporum suórum, in comparison with their own great size.
18. Praeter, along by, by, with the accusative.
a. Literally: as, - praeter castra, by the camp (along by, in front of); praeter oculós, before the eyes.
b. Figuratively, beyond, besides, more than, in addition to, except: as, - praeter spem, beyond hope; praeter aliós, more than others ; praeter paucós, with the exception of a few.
19. Pró, in front of, with the ablative.
sedéns pró aede Castoris, sitting in front of the temple of Castor; pró populó, in presence of the people. So pró róstrís, on [the front of] the rostra; pró contióne, before the assembly (in a speech).
a. In various idiomatic uses: pró lége, in defence of the law; pró vitulá, instead of a heifer; pró centum mílibus, as good as a hundred thousand; pró ratá parte, in due proportion; pró hác vice, for this once; pró cónsule, in place of consul; pró víribus, considering his strength; pró virílí parte, to the best of one's ability; pró tuá prúdentiá, in accordance with your wisdom.
20. Propter, near, by, with the accusative.
21. Secundum,[Old participle of sequor.] just behind, following, with the accusative.
a. Literally: as, - íte secundum mé (Plaut.), go behind me; secundum lítus, near the shore; secundum flúmen, along the stream (cf. secundó flúmine, down stream).
b. Figuratively, according to: as, - secundum nátúram, according to nature.
22. Sub, under, up to, with the accusative or the ablative.
1. Of motion, with the accusative: as, - sub montem succédere, to come close to the hill.
a. Idiomatically: sub noctem, towards night; sub lúcem, near daylight; sub haec dicta, at (following) these words.
2. Of rest, with the ablative: as, - sub Iove, in the open air (under the heaven, personified as Jove); sub monte, at the foot of the hill.
23. Subter, under, below, with the accusative (sometimes, in poetry, the ablative).
24. Super,[Comparative of sub.] with the accusative or the ablative.
1. With the accusative, above, over, on, beyond, upon.
a. Of place: super vállum praecipitárí (Iug. 58), to be hurled over the rampart; super laterés coria indúcuntur (B.C. ii. 10), hides are drawn over the bricks; super terrae tumulum statuí (Legg. ii. 65), to be placed on the mound of earth; super Numidiam (Iug. 19), beyond Numidia.
b. Idiomatically or less exactly: vulnus super vulnus, wound upon wound; super vínum (Q. C. viii. 4), over his wine.
2. With the ablative, concerning, about (the only use with this case in prose).
a. Poetically, in other senses: lígna super focó largé repónéns (Hor. Od. i. 9. 5), piling logs generously on the fire; nocte super mediá (Aen. ix. 61), after midnight.
25. Suprá, on top of, above, with the accusative.
26. Tenus (postpositive), as far as, up to, regularly with the ablative, sometimes with the genitive (cf. § 359. b).
1. With the ablative: Tauró tenus, as far as Taurus; capuló tenus, up to the hilt.
2. With the genitive: Cumárum tenus (Fam. viii. 1. 2), as far as Cumae.
NOTE 1: Tenus is frequently connected with the feminine of an adjective pronoun, making an adverbial phrase: as, háctenus, hitherto; quátenus, so far as; dé hác ré háctenus, so much for that (about this matter so far).
NOTE 2: Tenus was originally a neuter noun, meaning line or extent. In its use with the genitive (mostly poetical) it may be regarded as an adverbial accusative (§ 397. a).
27. Trans, across, over, through, by, with the accusative.
a. Of motion: as, - tráns mare currunt, they run across the sea; tráns flúmen ferre, to carry over a river; tráns aethera, through the sky; tráns caput iace, throw over your head.
b. Of rest: as, - tráns Rhénum incolunt, they live across the Rhine.
28. Ultrá, beyond (on the further side), with the accusative.
cis Padum ultráque, on this side of the Po and beyond; ultrá eum numerum, more than that number; ultrá fidem, incredible; ultrá modum, immoderate.
NOTE: Some adverbs appear as prepositions: as, intus, ínsuper (see § 219).
For Prepositions in Compounds, see § 267.