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A Roman had regularly three names: - (1) the praenómen, or personal name; (2) the nómen, or name of the géns or house; (3) the cógnómen, or family name: -

Thus in Márcus Tullius Ciceró we have -

NOTE: When two persons of the same family are mentioned together, the cógnómen is usually put in the plural: as, Públius et Servius Sullae.

a. A fourth or fifth name was sometimes given as a mark of honor or distinction, or to show adoption from another g=ens.

Thus the complete name of Scipio the Younger was Públius Cornélius Scípió áfricánus Aemiliánus: áfricánus, from his exploits in Africa; Aemiliánus, as adopted from the AEmilian géns.[1][In stating officially the full name of a Roman it was customary to include the praenómina of the father, grandfather, and great-grandfather, together with the name of the tribe to which the individual belonged. Thus in an inscription we find M. TVLLIVS M. F. M. N. M. PR. COR. CICERO, i.e. Márcus Tullius Márcí fílius Márcí nepós Márcí pronepós Cornéliá tribú Ciceró. The names of grandfather and great-grandfather as well as that of the tribe are usually omitted in literature. The name of a wife or daughter is usually accompanied by that of the husband or father in the genitive: as, Postumia Serví Sulpicií (Suet. Iul. 50), Postumia, wife of Servius Sulpicius; Caecilia Metellí (Div. i. 104), Caecilia, daughter of Metellus.]

NOTE: The Romans of the classical period had no separate name for these additions, but later grammarians invented the word ágnómen to express them.

b. Women had commonly in classical times no personal names, but were known only by the nómen of their géns.

Thus, the wife of Cicero was Terentia, and his daughter Tullia. A second daughter would have been called Tullia secunda or minor, a third daughter, Tullia tertia, and so on.

c. The commonest praenomens are thus abbreviated: -

A. Aulus. L. Lúcius. Q. Quíntus.
App. (Ap.) Appius. M. Márcus. Ser. Servius.
C. (G.) Gáius (Caius) (cf. § 1. a). M'. Mánius. Sex. (S.) Sextus.
Cn. (Gn.) Gnaeus (Cneius). Mám. Mámercus. Sp. Spurius.
D. Decimus. N. (Num.) Numerius T. Titus.
K. Kaesó (Caeso). P. Públius. Ti. (Tib.) Tiberius.

NOTE 1: In the abbreviations C. and Cn., the initial character has the value of G (§ 1. a).