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Substantive Clauses of Purpose.


Substantive Clauses of Purpose with ut (negative ) are used as the object of verbs denoting an action directed toward the future.

Such are, verbs meaning to admonish, ask, bargain, command, decree, determine, permit, persuade, resolve, urge, and wish: - [1][Such verbs or verbal phrases are id agó, ad id venió, caveó (né), cénseó, cógó, concédó, cónstituó, cúró, décernó, édícó, flágitó, hortor, imperó, ínstó, mandó, metuó (né). moneó, negótium dó, operam dó, óró, persuádeó, petó, postuló, praecipió, precor, prónúntió, quaeró, rogó, scíscó, timeó (né), vereor (né), videó, voló.]

NOTE: With any verb of these classes the poets may use the Infinitive instead of an object clause: -

For the Subjunctive without ut with verbs of commanding, see § 565. a.

a. Iubeó, order, and vetó, forbid, take the Infinitive with Subject Accusative: -

NOTE: Some other verbs of commanding etc. occasionally take the Infinitive: -

b. Verbs of wishing take either the Infinitive or the Subjunctive.

With voló (nóló, máló) and cupió the Infinitive is commoner, and the subject of the infinitive is rarely expressed when it would be the same as that of the main verb.

With other verbs of wishing the Subjunctive is commoner when the subject changes, the Infinitive when it remains the same.

1. Subject of dependent verb same as that of the verb of wishing: -

2. Subject of dependent verb different from that of the verb of wishing:

For voló and its compounds with the Subjunctive without ut, see § 565.

c. Verbs of permitting take either the Subjunctive or the Infinitive. Patior takes regularly the Infinitive with Subject Accusative ; so often sinó: -

d. Verbs of determining, decreeing, resolving, bargaining, take either the Subjunctive or the Infinitive: -

NOTE 1: Different verbs of these classes with the same meaning vary in their construction (see the Lexicon). For verbs of bargaining etc. with the Gerundive, see § 500. 4.

NOTE 2: Verbs of decreeing and voting often take the Infinitive of the Second Periphrastic conjugation: - R=egulus captívós reddendós [esse] n=on c=ensuit (Off. i. 39), Regulus voted that the captives should not be returned. [He said, in giving his formal opinion: captíví nón reddendí sunt.]

e. Verbs of caution and effort take the Subjunctive with ut. But cónor, try, commonly takes the Complementary Infinitive: -

NOTE 1: Cónor sí also occurs (as B. G. i. 8); cf. míror sí etc., § 572. b. N.

NOTE 2: Ut né occurs occasionally with verbs of caution and effort (cf. § 531): - c=ur=a et pr=ovid=e ut néquid eí désit (Att. xi. 3. 3), take care and see that he lacks nothing.

For the Subjunctive with quín and quóminus with verbs of hindering etc., see § 558.

5.4. Verbs of fearing take the Subjunctive, with affirmative and né nón or ut negative.

In this use is commonly to be translated by that, ut and né nón by that not: -

NOTE: The subjunctive in -clauses after a verb of fearing is optative in origin. To an independent -sentence, as né accidat, may it not happen, a verb may be prefixed (cf. § 560), making a complex sentence. Thus, vidé né accidat; óró né accidat; cavet né accidat; when the prefixed verb is one of fearing, timeó né accidat becomes let it not happen, but I fear that it may. The origin of the ut-clause is similar.

5.5. Voló and its compounds, the impersonals licet and oportet, and the imperatives díc and fac often take the Subjunctive without ut: -

NOTE 2: Licet may take (1) the Subjunctive, usually without ut; (2) the simple Infinitive; (3) the Infinitive with Subject Accusative; (4) the Dative and the Infinitive (see § 455. 1). Thus, I may go is licet eam, licet íre, licet mé íre, or licet mihi íre.

For licet in concessive clauses, see § 527. b.

NOTE 3: Oportet may take (1) the Subjunctive without ut; (2) the simple Infinitive; (3) the Infinitive with Subject Accusative. Thus I must go is oportet eam, oportet íre, or oportet mé íre.

a. Verbs of commanding and the like often take the subjunctive without ut: -

NOTE: The subjunctive in this construction is the hortatory subjunctive used to express a command in Indirect Discourse (§ 588).