a. Natural Gender is distinction as to the sex of the object denoted: as, puer (M.), boy; puella (F.), girl; réx (M.), king; régína (F.), queen.
NOTE 1: Many nouns have both a masculine and a feminine form to distinguish sex: as, cervus, cerva, stag, doe; cliéns, clienta, client; victor, victríx, conqueror.
Many designations of persons (as nauta, sailor) usually though not necessarily male are always treated as masculine. Similarly names of tribes and peoples are masculine: as, Rómani, the Romans; Persae, the Persians.
NOTE 2: A few neuter nouns are used to designate persons as belonging to a class: as, mancipium tuum, your slave (your chattel).
Many pet names of girls and boys are neuter in form: as, Paegnium, Glycerium.
NOTE 3: Names of classes or collections of persons may be of any gender: as, excercitus (M.), aciés (F.), and agmen (N.), army; operae (F. plur.), workmen; cópiae, (F. plur.), troops; senátus (M.), senate; cohors (F.), cohort; concilium (N.), council.
b. Grammatical Gender is a formal distinction as to sex where no actual sex exists in the object. It is shown by the form of the adjective joined with the noun: as, lapis mágnus (M.), a great stone; manus mea (F.), my hand.