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Many syntactic compounds are formed by prefixing a Particle to some other part of speech.

a. Prepositions are often prefixed to Verbs. In these compounds the prepositions retain their original adverbial sense: -

NOTE 1: In such compounds, however, the prepositions sometimes have their ordinary force as prepositions, especially ad, in, circum, tráns, and govern the case of a noun: as, tránsíre flúmen, to cross a river (see § 388. b).

NOTE 2: Short a of the root is weakened to i before one consonant, to e before two: as, fació, cónfició, cónfectus; iació, éició, éiectus. But long a is retained: as, peráctus.

b. VERBS are also compounded with the following inseparable particles, which do not appear as prepositions in Latin: -

c. Many Verbals are found compounded with a preposition, like the verbs to which they correspond: -

d. An Adjective is sometimes modified by an adverbial prefix.

1. Of these, per- (less commonly prae-), very; sub-, somewhat; in-, not, are regular, and are very freely prefixed to adjectives: -

per-mágnus, very large. in-nocuus, harmless.
per-paucí, very few. in-imícus, unfriendly.
sub-rústicus, rather clownish. ín-sánus, insane.
sub-fuscus, darkish. ín-fínítus, boundless.
prae-longus, very long. im-púrus, impure.

NOTE: Per and sub, in these senses, are also prefixed to verbs: as, per-terreó, terrify; sub-rídeó, smile. In ígnóscó, pardon, in- appears to be the negative prefix.

2. The negative in- sometimes appears in combination with an adjective that does not occur alone: -