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267. Many syntactic compounds are formed by
prefixing a Particle to some other part of speech.
a. Prepositions are often prefixed to
Verbs. In these compounds the prepositions retain their original
adverbial sense: -
- á, ab, AWAY: á-mittere, to send away.
- ad, TO, TOWARDS: af-ferre (ad-feró), to bring.
- ante, BEFORE: ante-ferre, to prefer; ante-cellere, to excel.
- circum, AROUND: circum-múníre, to fortify
- com-, con- (cum), TOGETHER or
FORCIBLY: cón-ferre, to
bring together; collocáre,
to set firm.
- dé, DOWN, UTTERLY:
- é, ex, OUT: ef-ferre (ec-feró), to carry forth,
- in (with verbs), IN, ON,
AGAINST: ín-ferre, to bear
- inter, BETWEEN, TO PIECES:
inter-rumpere, to interrupt.
- ob, TOWARDS, TO MEET:
of-ferre, to offer; ob-veníre, to meet.
- sub, UNDER, UP FROM UNDER:
sub-struere, to build beneath;
sub-dúcere, to lead up.
- super, UPON, OVER AND ABOVE:
super-fluere, to overflow.
NOTE 1: In such compounds, however, the prepositions sometimes
have their ordinary force as prepositions, especially ad, in, circum, tráns, and govern the
case of a noun: as, tránsíre
flúmen, to cross a river (see § 388. b).
NOTE 2: Short a of the
root is weakened to i before one
consonant, to e before two: as,
cónfectus; iació, éició,
éiectus. But long a
is retained: as, peráctus.
b. VERBS are also compounded with the
following inseparable particles, which do not appear as
prepositions in Latin: -
- amb- (am-, an-), AROUND:
amb-íre, to go about
(cf. , about).
- dis-, dí-, ASUNDER,
APART: dis-cédere, to
depart (cf. duo, two);
dí-videre, to divide.
- por-, FORWARD: por-tendere, to hold forth, predict (cf. porró, forth).
- red-, re-, BACK, AGAIN:
red-íre, to return;
re-clúdere, to open
(from claudó, shut); re-ficere, to repair (make again).
- séd-, sé-,
APART: sé-cernó, to
separate; cf. séd-itió, a going apart,
secession (eó, íre, to go).
c. Many Verbals are found compounded with
a preposition, like the verbs to which they correspond: -
- per-fuga, deserter;
vine-branch; cf. trá-dúcó
- ad-vena, stranger; cf.
- con-iux (con-iúnx),
spouse; cf. con-iungó.
- in-dex, pointer out;
- prae-ses, guardian;
- com-bibó, boon
companion; cf. com-bibó,
d. An Adjective is sometimes modified by
an adverbial prefix.
1. Of these, per- (less commonly prae-), very; sub-, somewhat; in-, not, are regular, and are very
freely prefixed to adjectives: -
| per-mágnus, very large. ||
in-nocuus, harmless. |
per-paucí, very few.
| sub-rústicus, rather clownish.
| sub-fuscus, darkish. || ín-fínítus,
| prae-longus, very long. ||
NOTE: Per and sub, in these senses, are also prefixed to
verbs: as, per-terreó,
terrify; sub-rídeó, smile. In
pardon, in- appears to be the
2. The negative in- sometimes
appears in combination with an adjective that does not occur alone: -
- in-ermis, unarmed (cf. arma, arms).
- im-bellis, unwarlike
(cf. bellum, war).
- im-púnis, without
punishment (cf. poena, punishment).
- in-teger, untouched,
whole (cf. tangó, to touch, root TAG).
unwilling (probably from root seen in ví-s, thou wishest).