NOTE: These classes are all really denominative in their origin, but the formations had become so associated with actual verbs that new derivatives were often formed directly from verbs without the intervention of a noun-stem.
1. Inceptives or Inchoatives add -scó[For -scó in primary formation, see § 176. b. 1.] to the present stem of verbs. They denote the beginning of an action and are of the Third Conjugation. Of some there is no simple verb in existence: -
NOTE: Inceptives properly have only the present stem, but many use the perfect and supine systems of simple verbs: as, caléscó, grow warm, caluí; árdéscó, blaze forth, ársí; proficíscor, set out, profectus.
2. Intensives or Iteratives are formed from the Supine stem and end in -tó or -itó (rarely -só). They denote a forcible or repeated action, but this special sense often disappears. Those derived from verbs of the First Conjugation end in -itó (not -átó).
They are of the first conjugation, and are properly denominative.
a. Compound suffixes -titó, -sitó, are formed with a few verbs. These are probably derived from other Iteratives; thus, cantitó may come from cantó, iterative of canó, sing.
b. Another form of Intensives - sometimes called Meditatives, or verbs of practice - ends in -essó (rarely -issó). These denote a certain energy or eagerness of action rather than its repetition: -
These are of the third conjugation, usually having the perfect and supine of the fourth: -
NOTE: The verbs in -essó, -issó, show the same formation as levássó, impetrássere, iúdicássit, etc. (§ 183. 5), but its origin is not fully explained.
3. Diminutives end in -illó, and denote a feeble or petty action: -
NOTE: Diminutives are formed from verb-stems derived from real or supposed diminutive nouns.
4. Desideratives end in -turió (-surió), and express longing or wishing. They are of the fourth conjugation, and only two are in common use: -
Others are used by the dramatists.
NOTE: Desideratives are probably derived from some noun of agency: as, émpturió, wish to buy, from émptor, buyer. Vísó, go to see, is an inherited desiderative of a different formation.