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Abstract Nouns and Names of Actions are formed from roots and verb-stems by means of the endings -

a. Added to roots or forms conceived as roots -

NOM. -or, M. -es, F. -us, N.
GEN. -óris -is -eris or -oris
STEM ór- (earlier ós-) i- er- (earlier eos-)

tim-or, fear; timére, to fear.
am-or, love; amáre, to love.
séd-és, seat; sedére, to sit.
caed-és, slaughter; caedere, to kill.
genus, birth, race; GEN, to be born (root of gignó, bear).
NOTE: Many nouns of this class are formed by analogy from imaginary roots: as facinus from a supposed root FACIN.

b. Apparently added to roots or verb-stems -


-ió, F. -tió (-sió), F. -túra (-súra), F. -tus, M.
GEN. -iónis -tiónis (-siónis) -túrae (-súrae) -tús (-sús)
STEM ión- tión- (sión-) túrá- (súrá-) tu- (su-)
leg-ió, a collecting (levy), a legion; legere, to collect.
reg-ió, a direction, a region; regere, to direct.
vocá-tió, a calling; vocáre, to call.
mólí-tió, a toiling; mólírí, to toil.
scríp-túra, a writing; scríbere, to write.
sén-sus (for sent-tus), feeling; sentíre, to feel.

NOTE 1: -tió, -túra, -tus are added to roots or verb-stems precisely as -tor, with the same phonetic change (cf. § 236. a. N.1). Hence they are conveniently associated with the supine stem (see § 178). They sometimes form nouns when there is no corresponding verb in use: as, senátus, senate (cf. senex); mentió, mention (cf. méns); fétúra, off-spring (cf. fétus); litterátúra, literature (cf. litterae); cónsulátus, consulship (cf. cónsul).

NOTE 2: Of these endings, -tus was originally primary (cf. § 234. II. 3.); -ió is a compound formed by adding ón- to a stem ending in a vowel (originally i): as, dició (cf. -dicus and dicis); -tió is a compound formed by adding ón- to stems in ti-: as, gradátió (cf. gradátim); -túra is formed by adding -ra, feminine of -rus, to stems in tu-: as, nátúra from nátus; statúra from status (cf. figúra, of like meaning, from a simple u- stem, figu-s; and mátúrus, Mátúta).