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Adverbs are regularly formed from Adjectives as follows:

a. From adjectives of the first and second declensions by changing the characteristic vowel of the stem to -é: as, cáré, dearly, from cárus, dear (stem cáro-); amícé, like a friend, from amícus, friendly (stem amíco-).

NOTE: The ending is a relic of an old ablative in -éd (cf. § 43. N. 1).

b. From adjectives of the third declension by adding -ter to the stem. Stems in nt- (nom. -ns) lose the t-. All others are treated as i-stems: -

NOTE: This suffix is perhaps the same as -ter in the Greek - o and in uter, alter. If so, these adverbs are in origin either neuter accusatives (cf. d) or masculine nominatives.

c. Some adjectives of the first and second declensions have adverbs of both forms ( and -ter). Thus dúrus, hard, has both dúré and dúriter; miser, wretched, has both miseré and miseriter.

d. The neuter accusative of adjectives and pronouns is often used as an adverb: as, multum, much; facile, easily; quid, why.

This is the origin of the ending -ius in the comparative degree of adverbs (§ 218): as, ácrius, more keenly (positive ácriter); facilius, more easily (positive facile).

NOTE: These adverbs are strictly cognate accusatives (§ 390).

e. The ablative singular neuter or (less commonly) feminine of adjectives, pronouns, and nouns may be used adverbially: as, falsó, falsely; cito, quickly (with shortened o); réctá (viá), straight (straightway); crébró, frequently; volgó, commonly; forte, by chance; sponte, of one's own accord.

NOTE: Some adverbs are derived from adjectives not in use: as, abundé, plentifully (as if from abundus; cf. abundó, abound); saepe, often (as if from saepis, dense, close-packed; cf. saepés, hedge, and saepió, hedge in).