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Forms of Conjugation.
179. The forms of the several conjugations from
which, by adding the verb-endings in § 166, all the moods and tenses
can be made are as follows: -
a. The First Conjugation includes all
verbs which add á- to the root
to form the present stem:[The present stem is thus the verb-stem. For
exceptions, see § 209. a.] as, amá-re; with a few whose root ends in
a (for, fá-rí; fló, flá-re; nó, ná-re; stó, stá-re).
1. The stem-vowel á- is
lost before -ó: as, amó amá-(y)ó; and in the
present subjunctive it is changed to é: as, amé-s, amé-mus.
2. The perfect stem regularly adds v, the supine stem t, to the present stem: as, amá-v-í, amá-t-um. For
exceptions, see § 209. a.
b. The Second Conjugation includes all
verbs which add é- to the root
to form the present stem: as, moné-re; with a few whose roo[QUERY]
ends in é; as, fle-ó, flé-re; ne-ó, né-re;
re-or, ré-rí (cf. § 176. e).
1. In the present subjunctive á is added to the verb-stem: as,
mone-á-s mone-á-mus (cf. § 168. e).
2. A few verbs form the perfect stem by adding v (u), and the supine stem by adding t, to the present stem: as, délé-v-í,
délé-t-um. But mos[QUERY] form the perfect stem
by adding v (u) to the root, and the
supine stem by adding t to a weaker
form of the present stem, ending in i:
as, mon-u-[QUERY] moni-t-um. For
lists, see § 210.
c. The Third Conjugation includes all
verbs (not irregular, see § 197) which add e- to the root to form the present stem: as,
tege-re, cape-re; with a few whose
root ends in e: as, se-re-re for
se-se-re (reduplicated from SE, cf. satum).
- 1. The stem-vowel e is regularly lost before -ó, and becomes u[The gerundive varies between -endus and -undus.] before -nt and i
before the other endings of the indicative and imperative: as, teg-ó, tegi-t, tegu-nt; in the imperfect
indicative it becomes é: as,
tegé-bás, etc.; in the future, é: as, tegé-s (except in the first person singular, tega-m, tega-r); in the
present subjunctive, á: as,
- Verbs in -ió lose the
i before a consonant and also before
i, í, and e (except in the future, the participle, the gerund, and the gerundive). Thus, - capi-at,
capi-unt, capi-ébat, capi-és, capi-et, capi-ent;
but, cap-it (not capi-it), cap-eret.
- 2. All varieties of perfect and supine
stems are found in this conjugation. See lists, § 211. The perfect
is not formed from the present stem, but from the root.
- d. The Fourth Conjugation includes
all verbs which add í- to the
root to form the present stem: as, audí-re.[A few are formed from
noun-stems, as fíní-re
(from fíni-s), and a few roots
perhaps end in i; but these are not
distinguishable in form.] In these the perfect and supine stems regularly
add v, t, to the verb-stem: as,
t-um.[For exceptions, see § 212. b.] Endings
like those of the third conjugation are added in the third person plural
of the present (indicative and imperative), in the imperfect and future
indicative, and in the present subjunctive: as, audi-unt, audi-ébat, audi-étis,
audi-at, the i being
regularly short before a vowel.
- e. The Present Imperative Active
(second person singular) is the same as the present stem: as, amá, moné, tege, audí.
But verbs in -ió of the third
conjugation omit i: as, cape (not capie).
- f. The tenses of completed
action in the Active voice are all regularly formed by adding the
tense-endings (given in § 166) to the perfect stem: as, amáv-í, amáv-eram,
amáv-eró, amáv-erim, amáv-issem,
- g. The tenses of completed
action in the Passive voice are formed by adding to the perfect
participle the corresponding tenses of continued action of the verb
esse: as, perfect amátus sum; pluperfect amátus eram, etc.