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Perfect Stem.


The Perfect Stem is formed as follows: -

a. The suffix v (u) is added to the verb-stem: as, vocá-v-í, audí-v-í; or to the root: as, son-u-í (soná-re, root SON), mon-u-í (moné-re, MON treated as a root).[1][The v-perfect is a form of uncertain origin peculiar to the Latin.]

NOTE: In a few verbs the vowel of the root is transposed and lengthened: as, strá-v-í (sternó, STAR), spré-v-í (spernó, SPAR).

b. The suffix s is added to the root: as, carp-s-í (CARP), téx-í (for tég-s-í, TEG).[2][The s-perfect is in origin an aorist. Thus, díx-í (for dícs-í) corresponds to the Greek aorist -- (for --).]

NOTE: The modifications of the present stem sometimes appear in the perfect: as, fínx-í (FIG, present stem finge-), sánx-í (SAC, present stem sancí-).

c. The root is reduplicated by prefixing the first consonant - generally with e, sometimes with the root-vowel: as, ce-cid-í (cadó, CAD), to-tond-í (tondeó, TOND).

NOTE: In fid-í (for fe-fid-í, find-ó), scid-í (for sci-scid-í, scindó), the reduplication has been lost, leaving merely the root.

d. The root vowel is lengthened, sometimes with vowel change: as, lég-í (leg-=o), ém-í (em-ó), víd-í (vid-e-ó), fúg-í (fug-i-ó), ég-í (ag-ó).

e. Sometimes the perfect stem has the same formation that appears in the present tense: as, vert-í (vert-ó), solv-í (solv-ó).

f. Sometimes the perfect is formed from a lost or imaginary stem: as, petí-v-í (as if from peti-ó, petí-re, PET).