a. Four Participles,[The Participles are adjectives in inflection and meaning, but have the power [QUERY] verbs in construction and in distinguishing time.] viz.: -
Active: the Present and Future Participles.
Passive: the Perfect Participle and the Gerundive.[The Gerundive is also used as an adjective of necessity, duty, etc. (§ 158. d). I late use it became a Future Passive Participle.]
b. The Gerund: this is in form a neuter noun of the second declension used only in the oblique cases of the singular.
c. The Supine: this is in form a verbal noun of the fourth declension in the accusative (-um) and dative or ablative (-ú)[Originally locative.] singular.