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Demonstrative Pronouns.


The Demonstrative Pronouns are used to point out or designate a person or thing for special attention, either with nouns as Adjectives or alone as Pronouns. They are: - híc, this; is, ille, iste, that; with the Intensive ipse, self, and ídem, same;[1][These demonstratives are combinations of o- and i- stems, which are not clearly distinguishable.] and are thus declined: -

híc, this SINGULAR
M. F. N. M. F. N.
NOM. híc haec hóc hae haec
GEN. huius huius huius hórum hárum hórum
DAT. huic huic huic hís hís hís
ACC. hunc hanc hóc hós hás haec
ABL. hóc hác hóc hís hís hís

NOTE 1: Híc is a compound of the stem ho- with the demonstrative enclitic -c[QUERY] In most of the cases final e is dropped, in some the whole termination. But in these latter it is sometimes retained for emphasis: as, huius-ce, hís-ce. In early Latin -c alon[QUERY] is retained in some of these (hórunc). The vowel in híc, hóc, was originally short, an perhaps this quantity was always retained. Ille and iste are sometimes found with the same enclitic: illic, illaec, illuc; also illoc. See a, p. 67.

NOTE 2: For the dative and ablative plural of híc the old form híbus is sometime found; haec occurs (rarely) for hae.

is, that SINGULAR
M. F. N. M. F. N.
NOM. is ea id eí, ií (í) eae ea
GEN. eius eius eius eórum eárum eórum
DAT. eís, iís (ís) eís, iís (ís) eís, iís (ís)
ACC. eum eam id eós eás ea
ABL. eís, iís (ís) eís, iís (ís) eís, iís (ís)

NOTE 3: Obsolete forms are eae (dat. fem.), and eábus or íbus (dat. plur.). F[QUERY] dative are found also and ei (monosyllabic); ei, eos, etc., also occur in the plural.

ille, that SINGULAR
M. F. N. M. F. N.
NOM. ille illa illud illí illae illa
GEN. illíus illíus illíus illórum illárum illórum
DAT. illí illí illí illís illís illís
ACC. illum illam illud illós illás illa
ABL. illó illá illó illís illís illís

Iste, ista, istud, that (yonder), is declined like ille.

NOTE 4: Ille replaces an earlier ollus (olle), of which several forms occur.

NOTE 5: Iste is sometimes found in early writers in the form ste etc. The fi[QUERY] syllable of ille and ipse is very often used as short in early poetry.

NOTE 6: The forms illí, istí (gen.), and illae, istae (dat.), are sometimes foun[QUERY] also the nominative plural istaece, illaece (for istae, illae). See a , p. 67.

ipse, self SINGULAR
M. F. N. M. F. N.
NOM. ipse ipsa ipsum ipsí ipsae ipsa
GEN. ipsíus ipsíus ipsíus ipsórum ipsárum ipsórum
DAT. ipsí ipsí ipsí ipsís ipsís ipsís
ACC. ipsum ipsam ipsum ipsós ipsás ipsa
ABL. ipsó ipsá ipsó ipsís ipsís ipsís

NOTE 7: Ipse is compounded of is and -pse (a pronominal particle of uncertain origin: cf. § 145. a), meaning self. The former part was originally declined, as in reápse (for ré eápse), in fact. An old form ipsus occurs, with superlative ipsissimus, own self, used for comic effect.

NOTE 8: The intensive -pse is found in the forms eapse (nominative), eumpse, eampse, eópse, eápse (ablative).

ídem, the same SINGULAR
M. F. N. M. F. N.
NOM. ídem eadem idem ídem (eí) eaedem eadem
GEN. eiusdem eiusdem eiusdem eórundem eárundem eórundem
DAT. eídem eídem eídem eísdem or ísdem ACC.
ABL. eódem eádem eódem eísdem or ísdem

NOTE 9: ídem is the demonstrative is with the indeclinable suffix -dem. The masculine ídem is for isdem; the neuter idem, however, is not for iddem, but is a relic of an older formation. A final m of is is changed to n before d: as, eundem for eumdem, etc. The plural forms ídem, ísdem, are often written iídem, iísdem.

a. Ille and iste appear in combination with the demonstrative particle -c, shortened from -ce, in the following forms: -


M. F. N. M. F.
NOM. illic illaec illuc (illoc) istic istaec istuc (istoc)
ACC. illunc illanc illuc (illoc) istunc istanc istuc (istoc)
ABL. illóc illác illóc istóc istác istóc


N., ACC. - - - - illaec - - - -

NOTE 1: The appended -ce is also found with pronouns in numerous combinations: as, huiusce, hunce, hórunce, hárunce, hósce, hísce (cf. § 146. N. 1), illíusce, ísce; also with the interrogative -ne, in hócine, hóscine, istucine, illicine, etc.

NOTE 2: By composition with ecce or em, behold ! are formed eccum (for ecce eum), eccam, eccós, eccás; eccillum (for ecce illum); ellum (for em illum), ellam, ellós, ellás; eccistam. These forms are dramatic and colloquial.

b. The combinations huiusmodí (huiuscemodí), eiusmodí, etc., are used as indeclinable adjectives, equivalent to tális, such: as, rés eiusmodí, such a thing (a thing of that sort: cf. § 345. a).

For uses of the Demonstrative Pronouns, see §§ 296 ff.